African American Population: Defined in this study as “Race alone or in combination with one or more races – Black or African American”. Some health outcomes have a correlation to African Americans as a racial group.
Community Food Assessment: A collaborative and participatory process that systematically examines a broad range of community food issues and assets, and so inform change actions to make the community more food secure. (http://foodsecurity.org/CFS_projects.pd )
Community Garden: A plot of land that is gardened by a group of people to produce fruits, vegetables, flowers, and sometimes chickens for egg production. Community gardens exist in a variety of settings, urban and rural, on vacant lots, at schools or community centers, or on donated land. Food may be grown communally, or individuals or families may have individual garden plots or beds.
Chronic Disease: Conditions that keep coming back, or persistent conditions that are the nation’s leading causes of death and disability (i.e., high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, heart problems, and mental illness). Most of the time, these conditions could have been prevented. They can lead to lifelong disability, and negatively impact an individual’s quality of life due to high health care costs.
Equity: Providing all people with fair opportunities to achieve their full potential.
Farmers Market: A common facility or area where several farmers or growers gather on a regular, recurring basis to sell a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables and other locally-grown farm products directly to consumers. Related Term: Certified Farmers Market -Some states offer or require certification of farmers markets to ensure that the products sold are produced by the farmers themselves.
Food Deserts: Urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. Instead of supermarkets and grocery stores, these communities may have no food access or access only to fast food restaurants and convenience stores that offer few healthy and affordable food options.
NOTE: For the purposes of this study, a Food Desert is defined as any Low Income Area (see below) that is more than one-half mile from a supermarket.
Food Distribution and Assistance Resources: Programs that strengthen food security through commodity distribution and nutrition assistance to low-income families and other eligible individuals. (https://www.nutrition.gov/food-assistance-programs/food-distribution-programs)
• Food Banks: Food Banks are distribution hubs. They supply the food to the soup kitchens, food pantries, shelters, and other similar facilities. They in turn provide that food to the individuals that need it. (http://www.homelessshelterdirectory.org/foodbanks/OHfoodbanks.html)
• Food Pantry: A location, organization or group that sorts and packages donated foodstuffs for distribution directly to people in need. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/food+pantry)
• Hot Meal Site: Locations that offer a place to sit down and eat a hot and nutritious meal* (*Food services and times are subject to change)
• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Federal nutrition assistance program that offers benefits to low-income individuals and families and provides economic benefits to communities.
• USDA (http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap)
Food Insecurity: Limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. (https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/measurement.aspx)
Healthy Food Financing Initiative: The federal Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI) supports projects that increase access to healthy, affordable food in communities that currently lack these options.
Income Density: All the income for all the households within an area divided by the land area in square miles .
Institutional Racism: Discriminatory treatment, unfair policies and practices, and inequitable opportunities and influence within organizations and institutions, based on race.
Life Expectancy: The average number of years a population of a certain age is expected to live, given a set of age-specific death rates in a given year.
Large Grocery Store: Generally a smaller chain or non-chain store that offers fewer options when compared to a Supermarket. Large Grocery Stores typically offer at least six (6) varieties of fresh fruits/vegetables and offers low-fat milk as an option. Additionally, they offer raw meat (cut in store) and bakery (baked in store), and have five (5) or fewer cash registers. Examples include Marc’s and Aldi.
Low Income Area: Defined by the State of Ohio eligibility standard for Food Pantry use, and includes households earning less than 200% of the Federal poverty guideline.
NOTE: For the purposes of this study, any area where more than 30% of the households earn less than 200% of the poverty guideline will be considered a Low Income Area. Further, those areas that are not Low Income Areas by this definition will not be considered part of a Food Desert; it can be assumed that higher income households can readily afford to travel to a store farther than one-half mile away.
Minority Population: Defined in this study as “Total Population” minus “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”. This measure correlates to racial and ethnic biases that affect standard of living and choice of neighborhoods.
Small Grocery Store: A smaller store without a variety of departments (deli, bakery, etc.) that offers at least one variety of milk and at least two (2) varieties of fresh fruits/vegetables.
Supermarket: Large store selling a variety of groceries including: raw meat, baked goods, at least eleven (11) varieties of both fresh fruits/vegetables, and three (3) varieties of milk (including low-fat). Also offers a variety of household goods and other services such as a pharmacy. Local examples include Giant Eagle, Heinen’s and Dave’s.
Statistical Planning Area (SPA): SPAs are geographic areas defined by the City of Cleveland Planning Commission in conjunction with community organizations and residents. The SPAs are a combination of contiguous census blocks within the City, and are defined by generally accepted neighborhood boundaries within each area. There are thirty-four (34) SPAs in the City of Cleveland. (http://neocando.case.edu/cando/index.jsp?tPage=geog)
Structural Racism: Racial bias across and within society. The cumulative and compounded effects of factors such as public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms that often reinforce and perpetuate racial inequity.
Transportation Access: Access to affordable and reliable transportation is essential to addressing poverty, unemployment, and other equal opportunity goals such as access to healthy food, good schools, and health care services. (http://www.civilrights.org/transportation/)
Urban or Suburban Sprawl: The expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into areas with less population density; car-dependent communities.