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Cuyahoga County Supermarket Assessment

Supermarket Access in Cuyahoga County

Welcome! Some communities concentrated in Cuyahoga County’s urban core and inner ring suburbs lack access to supermarkets that provide healthy food, jobs, community services, and economic stability for neighborhoods. This lack of access disproportionately affects people of color and low-income residents. Supermarkets are vital to residents, by providing, healthy, affordable food. Supermarkets are community anchors, providing jobs, economic development, community connections and neighborhood stabilization. Collaboration, municipal support, and community engagement can ensure effective supermarket implementation.

This map shows the distribution of supermarkets across Cuyahoga County. The areas in yellow, orange and red represent neighborhoods that are more than ½ mile from a supermarket AND are lower income. The green area around the supermarkets represents a neighborhood with good healthy food access. Check out the interactive map on the Technical Information tab.

Click on the map to enlarge


The tabs below include the components of the Cuyahoga County Supermarket Access Assessment

Access to high quality and affordable supermarkets is an urgent and cross cutting issue for communities in Cuyahoga County. Supermarkets impact public health, access to jobs and healthy food, neighborhood stability, tax revenue, and quality of life. Particularly for lower income neighborhoods in Cuyahoga County, supermarket access and “food deserts” deeply affect day to day living.  A central goal of this work is to improve access to high quality and affordable supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods across Cuyahoga County.

The Supermarket Access Assessment has four Objectives:

  1. Identify neighborhoods in Cuyahoga County with lower incomes and less access to supermarkets (“food deserts”)
  2. Provide data to residents, partners and governments to support supermarket implementation efforts
  3. Provide data and local examples to develop policy recommendations to assist with supermarket development
  4. Establish benchmarks and ongoing tracking of the supermarket landscape

We want supermarkets in our communities

 

What is a food desert?

How do I find out if my neighborhood is in a food desert?

Click here to view an interactive map. You can zoom in on your neighborhood and see if it is in a food desert. Certain communities across Cuyahoga County are more challenged than others. The creators of this assessment have identified “focus areas” or areas where communities are both low income, far away from a supermarket, and compared with chronic disease rates. Click on the Focus Areas tab for this information.

 

Where can I get information about my neighborhood?

The Community Profile tabs will take you to a snapshot of each community in Cuyahoga County (either Cleveland neighborhood or suburb). Each Community Profile includes profiles of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, as well as an inventory of resources related to food availability.

Click here to read a case study about the Simon’s Supermarket implementation in Euclid, Ohio.  Sign up HERE to get involved with this work.

A broad coalition consisting of local and regional governments, community leaders, business and non-profit organizations developed comprehensive data regarding the distribution of supermarkets, health outcomes in relation to supermarkets and community level socioeconomic data.
There are recent examples of collaborative supermarket implementation in low-income neighborhoods in Euclid, Cleveland and Bedford, OH. Click here to read a case study about the Simon’s Supermarket implementation in Euclid, Ohio. Each project is in a different stage but they all involve collaboration among local government, the storeowner and residents to implement a supermarket with input and collective engagement from residents who live near the supermarket. Sign up HERE to get involved with this work.

Supermarkets in your neighborhood can improve your health.

This map shows Food Desert neighborhoods and the “Disease Composite Scores”. Neighborhoods shown in dark blue represent places where people are dying more from diet related diseases including Cancer, Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke than the lighter shaded neighborhoods. Click on the Focus Areas tab to view some particularly challenged communities with regards to food access and health.

Many studies have shown a link between health and living near a supermarket. In fact, 83% of people living in food deserts in Cuyahoga County are neighborhoods with higher rates of deaths from chronic diseases (cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes).

Research on Supermarkets and Health

Neighborhood Racial Composition, Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility of Supermarkets in Metropolitan Detroit

The Association between Obesity and Urban Food Environments

The Neighborhood Food Resource Environment and the Health of Residents with Chronic Conditions

Supermarkets, Other Food Stores, and Obesity The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on Residents’ Diets: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Proximity of supermarkets is positively associated with diet quality index for pregnancy

Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African Americans: Income and Store Characteristics

Community-level comparisons between the grocery store environment and individual dietary practices

Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

Policy Solutions to the Grocery Gap

 

 

The following communities are of particular focus. Please click each one to view a detailed map for each focus area. The first section will display the food desert maps for each focus area. The second section (below) will display the food desert and chronic disease death rate data for each focus area.

Food Desert Focus Area Maps

Bedford Heights Bedford South – Oakwood Bellaire Puritas (East) Broadway – Miles – Garfield
Brooklyn Centre Buckeye – Shaker – Woodhill Clark Fulton – Stockyards Collinwood North
Collinwood Nottingham Cudell – Detroit Shoreway East Cleveland North Euclid North
Euclid South Fairfax Glenville West Harvard – Warrensville Ctr
Lee -Maple – Garfield Northeast Mt Pleasant – Union -Kinsman Newburgh – Valley Ohio City – Detroit – Shoreway
Old Brooklyn Parma North Parma Heights Southwest Snow – Stumph – West 130th
St. Clair – Hough Tremont Warrensville – Southeast West Blvd

Food Desert and Health Focus Area Maps

Bedford Heights Bedford South – Oakwood Bellaire Puritas (East) Broadway – Miles – Garfield
Brooklyn Centre Buckeye – Shaker – Woodhill Clark Fulton – Stockyards Collinwood North
Collinwood Nottingham Cudell – Detroit Shoreway East Cleveland North Euclid North
Euclid South Fairfax Glenville West Harvard – Warrensville Ctr
Lee -Maple – Garfield Northeast Mt Pleasant – Union -Kinsman Newburgh – Valley Ohio City – Detroit – Shoreway
Old Brooklyn Parma North Parma Heights Southwest Snow – Stumph – West 130th
St. Clair – Hough Tremont Warrensville – Southeast West Blvd

Local Supermarket Access News

Thousands in Cuyahoga County Don’t Have Easy Access to Healthy Food (10/6/17)

Case Study Aims to Find New Ways to Tackle Cleveland Food Deserts (10/5/2017

As many as 450,000 people in the county live in food deserts; group wants to increase access to supermarkets (10/4/2017)

Simon’s Supermarket likely moving into old Buckeye Plaza Giant Eagle (8/22/17)

Cleveland City Council moves on financial package for Dave’s Markets new store on Chester (7/12/17)

Simon’s nutrition education tour (5/7/17)

Dave’s Markets likely to replace flagship AsiaTown store with new Midtown supermarket (4/13/17)

Euclid officials, residents welcome Simon’s Supermarket, praise void it fills 2/18/17)

Simon’s Supermarket opens in Euclid (2/4/17)

Simon’s Supermarket in Euclid hosting pre-SuperbowlgGrand opening event (1/3/17)

Simon’s Supermarket opening Feb 4 aims to be fresh food oasis in former food desert (1/29/17)

Cleveland’s Buckeye neighborhood doesn’t Want Giant Eagle to close on Feb 4 (1/22/17)

West Park residents protest closure of Giant Eagle (1/20/17)

Giant Eagle closings spark food desert concerns (1/13/17)

Giant Eagle Buckeye store set to close (1/10/17)

Mayor Jackson responds to Giant Eagle closures (1/4/17)

Simon’s Supermarket on Euclid Avenue to open Mid-November 2016 (11/7/16)

Business owner, city, county and state collaborate to bring oasis to Euclid food desert (10/19/16)


State or National Supermarket Access News

As D.C. prospers, supermarkets proliferate — except in poor areas (6/27/17)

Want to eat better? Sorry, we’re closed. (4/28/16)

After years of waiting, ground breaks for a grocery store in Vinton County: Ohio Matters (3/20/17)

Whole Foods sets up shop in low-income neighborhoods (10/9/2016)

Dallas’ north-south divide on display as city wrestled with giving Costco $3 million (May 2016)

 

 

The Creating Healthy Communities Initiative brings together community coalitions to identify, implement and evaluate interventions aimed at reducing the leading causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic lower respiratory disease by focusing on policy, environmental, and system changes aimed at modifiable risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition and obesity, cholesterol and blood pressure.

Join the efforts of the Supermarket Access Stakeholder Group

We plan to track supermarket access in Cuyahoga County and to support supermarket implementation in neighborhoods that are considered food deserts. Sign up HERE to get involved with this work.

The Supermarket Access Stakeholder Group is an ad-hoc coalition that is developing a Supermarket Access Assessment and Policy Recommendations for supermarket implementation in low-income neighborhoods across Cuyahoga County.   The Group so far consists of representatives from the  Creating Healthy Communities Program at the Cuyahoga County Board of Health, Cuyahoga County Planning Commission, Ohio State University Extension, Greater Cleveland Food Bank, City of Euclid, Burten Bell Carr Development Corporation and Simon’s Supermarket, HIP-Cuyahoga Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL), Cleveland -Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition, Prevention Research Center for Healthy Neighborhoods at Case Western Reserve University, Healthy Food for Ohio Program, The Food Trust, Food Access Raises Everyone.

 

Contact Information

Roger Sikes, MPH
Program Manager
(216) 201-2000 ext. 1526
rsikes@ccbh.net
Ann Stahlheber, MS, RD, LD
Program Manager
(216) 201-2000 ext. 1544
astahlheber@ccbh.net

The 2016-2017 Community Food Assessment is a two-part project.

Part 1: Current Conditions provides a snapshot of each community in Cuyahoga County, and includes profiles of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, as well as an inventory of resources related to food availability.

Data was gathered for each Cuyahoga County city, village, and township, and for each Statistical Planning Area within the City of Cleveland, since these communities vary considerably in their demographics, geography, and development patterns. This series of community profiles explores a number of variables associated with food insecurity such as income levels and access to transportation. Most information provided in the profiles was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) for the period 2010-2014. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) statistics were collected from NEO CANDO (Northeast Ohio Community and Neighborhood Data for Organizing).

The profiles include the following categories:
• Population;
• Race and Ethnicity;
• Housing Tenure;
• Gender;
• Vehicle Access;
• Unemployment;
• Household Income;
• Poverty; and
• SNAP statistics.
For community-level reporting, Census data was obtained at the “Subdivision” and “Place” level. For Cleveland Statistical Planning Areas, Census data was obtained at 11 the block group level, and disaggregated to census block level using proportions of population and households from the 2010 Census, then re-aggregated for each SPA. As a result, median income was not available at the neighborhood level.

Click here to download the full Part 1 of the community assessment document. 

Part 2: Resource Analysis is the second step in the study.

Methodology for Supermarket Access Analysis:

The methods for the Part 2 of the Supermarket Assessment included these major steps:

  • Develop supermarket inventory from food license databases via local public health departments
  • Generate drive-time distances of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0+ miles around each of the approximately 180 major grocery stores in and around Cuyahoga County
  • Identify Low Income Areas where 30% of the population is at less than 200% of the poverty line
  • Compile socio-economic data for census blocks falling within each of the drive-time areas
  • Delineate, Food Desert Focus Areas that conform to administrative and/or established neighborhood boundaries
  • Compile summary socio-economic data for each focus area
  • Create interactive mapping application

A “Food Desert”, in this study, is defined as any low-income area that is more
than one half mile from a supermarket or large grocery store;
• A “Low-income Area” is defined using the State of Ohio’s eligibility standard for Food Pantry use, and includes households earning less than 200% of the federal poverty guideline. Further, for the purposes of this study, any area where more than 30% of the population earns less than 200% of the poverty guideline is a considered a “low income area”. Just as importantly, those areas that are not low income by this definition will not be considered part of a “food desert”, since it can be assumed that higher income households can readily afford to travel to a store further than one-half mile away; and
• Distance from grocery was determined by travel along the established street network. GIS software was used to delineate concentric “service areas” at ½ mile intervals, from ½ mile to 2 miles from each store. Demographics were
tabulated for each of these service areas and corresponding gap areas to
identify the communities and neighborhoods that would benefit from food
policy interventions.

List of data available upon request for Cuyahoga County, statistical planning area, municipality, census block:

  • 2010 population
  • 2010 # of housing units
  • 2010 occupied housing units
  • 2010 block group population
  • 2010 block group households
  • 2010 Low/Mod Population (Estimated population falling under HUD Low & Moderate Income threshold)
  • 2010 Number of Minority Population (Estimated block minority population, ACS 2014)
  • 2010 Male Population
  • 2010 Population Age Under 5 years
  • 2010 Population Age Under 5-9 years
  • 2010 Population Age 10-14 years
  • 2010 Population Age 15-17 years
  • 2010 Population Age 18-19 years
  • 2010 Population Age 20 years
  • 2010 Population Age 21 years
  • 2010 Population Age 22-24 years
  • 2010 Population Age 25-29 years
  • 2010 Population Age 30-34 years
  • 2010 Population Age 35-39 years
  • 2010 Population Age 40-44 years
  • 2010 Population Age 45-49 years
  • 2010 Population Age 50-54 years
  • 2010 Population Age 55-59 years
  • 2010 Population Age 60-61 years
  • 2010 Population Age 62-64 years
  • 2010 Population Age 65-66 years
  • 2010 Population Age 67-69 years
  • 2010 Population Age 70-74 years
  • 2010 Population Age 75-79 years
  • 2010 Population Age 80-84 years
  • 2010 Population Age 85 and Over
  • 2010 Persons 16+ in Labor Force
  • 2010 Person 16+ Unemployed
  • 2010 Aggregate Household Income (Combined total of reported income for all households.)
  • 2010 Households with Income Less than $10,000
  • 2010 Households with Income $10,000 to $14,000
  • 2010 Households with Income $15,000 to $19,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $20,000 to $24,000
  • 2010 Households with Income $25,000 to $29,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $30,000 to $34,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $35,000 to $39,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $40,000 to $44,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $45,000 to $49,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $50,000 to $59,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $60,000 to $74,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $75,000 to $99,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $100,000 to $124,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $125,000 to $149,999
  • 2010 Households with Income $150,000 to $199,999
  • 2010 Households wtih Income $200,000 or more
  • 2010 Occupied Household total
  • 2010 Owner Occupied Households
  • 2010 Owner Occupied Households Without Vehicle
  • 2010 Total Households Without Vehicle
  • 2010 Aggregate Vehicles Available
  • 2010 Vehicles per Household
  • 2010 Vehicles per Person
  • 2010 Population for Whom Poverty Has Been Determined (A subset of Total Population, used as the denominator for Percent of Population)
  • 2010 Population under 50% of Poverty level
  • 2010 Population Between 50% and 99% of Poverty Level
  • 2010 Population Between 100% and 124% of Poverty Level
  • 2010 Population Between 135% and 149% of Povery Level
  • 2010 Population Between 150% and 184% of Poverty Level
  • 2010 Population Between 185% and 199% of Poverty Level
  • 2010 Population 200% and over of Poverty Level (Population with income below 200% of the federal poverty level. For a family of four, the income level associated with 200% of the poverty level was $48,182 for a family of four (2014).)
  • 2010 Population Below Povery Level
  • 2010 Population African American (Population Black or African American alone or in combination with one or more other races)
  • 2010 Meets Poverty Threshold (30% of Population Below 200% Poverty)
  • 2010 Transit Access Quartile (Category of access to public transit, based on None and Very Low – Very High (per Quartile).  From CCPC analysis of RTA scheduled stops per square mile.)
  • Drive Mile Zone to Nearest Grocery (Driving miles zone from block centroid to nearest grocery, expressed as the upper limit per zone.)
  • 2010 Food Desert Focus Area
  • 2010 Household Without Vehicle
  • 2010 Population in a Food Desert (Yes or no if block is greater than 1/2 mile from grocery and greater than 30% of population is below 200% of Poverty)
  • Cancer Death Rate (Age-adjusted Cancer Death Rate per 1000 for parent census tract)
  • Diabetes Death Rate (Age-adjusted Diabetes Death Rate per 1000 for parent census tract)
  • Heart Disease Death Rate (Age-adjusted Heart Disease Death Rate per 1000 for parent census tract)
  • Stroke Death Rate (Age-adjusted Stroke Death Rate per 1000 for parent census tract)
  • Cancer Death Rate Quartile (Cancer rate Quartile for parent census tract)
  • Diabetes Death Rate Quartile (Diabetes rate Quartile for parent census tract)
  • Heart Disease Death Rate Quartile (Heart Disease rate Quartile for parent census tract)
  • Stroke Death Rate Quartile (Stroke rate Quartile for parent census tract)
  • Diease Q Score (Sum of quartile scores for each of 4 disease types)
  • Percent Below Poverty (Population with income below the federal poverty level. For a family of four, the income level associated with the poverty level was $24,091 for a family of four (2014).)

 

 

Key Terms

African American Population: Defined in this study as “Race alone or in combination with one or more races – Black or African American”. Some health outcomes have a correlation to African Americans as a racial group.
Community Food Assessment: A collaborative and participatory process that systematically examines a broad range of community food issues and assets, and so inform change actions to make the community more food secure. (http://foodsecurity.org/CFS_projects.pd )
Community Garden: A plot of land that is gardened by a group of people to produce fruits, vegetables, flowers, and sometimes chickens for egg production. Community gardens exist in a variety of settings, urban and rural, on vacant lots, at schools or community centers, or on donated land. Food may be grown communally, or individuals or families may have individual garden plots or beds.
(http://guides.library.cornell.edu/c.php?g=31298&p=199469)
Chronic Disease: Conditions that keep coming back, or persistent conditions that are the nation’s leading causes of death and disability (i.e., high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, heart problems, and mental illness). Most of the time, these conditions could have been prevented. They can lead to lifelong disability, and negatively impact an individual’s quality of life due to high health care costs.
Equity: Providing all people with fair opportunities to achieve their full potential.
Farmers Market: A common facility or area where several farmers or growers gather on a regular, recurring basis to sell a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables and other locally-grown farm products directly to consumers. Related Term: Certified Farmers Market -Some states offer or require certification of farmers markets to ensure that the products sold are produced by the farmers themselves.
(http://guides.library.cornell.edu/c.php?g=31298&p=199469)
Food Deserts: Urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. Instead of supermarkets and grocery stores, these communities may have no food access or access only to fast food restaurants and convenience stores that offer few healthy and affordable food options. NOTE: For the purposes of this study, a Food Desert is defined as any Low Income Area (see below) that is more than one-half mile from a supermarket.
Food Distribution and Assistance Resources: Programs that strengthen food security through commodity distribution and nutrition assistance to low-income families and other eligible individuals. (https://www.nutrition.gov/food-assistance-programs/food-distribution-programs)

• Food Banks: Food Banks are distribution hubs. They supply the food to the soup kitchens, food pantries, shelters, and other similar facilities. They in turn          provide that food to the individuals that need it. (http://www.homelessshelterdirectory.org/foodbanks/OHfoodbanks.html)
• Food Pantry: A location, organization or group that sorts and packages donated foodstuffs for distribution directly to people in need.    (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/food+pantry)
• Hot Meal Site: Locations that offer a place to sit down and eat a hot and nutritious meal* (*Food services and times are subject to change)
• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Federal nutrition assistance program that offers benefits to low-income individuals and families and    provides economic benefits to communities.
• USDA (http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap)

Food Insecurity: Limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. (https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/measurement.aspx)
Healthy Food Financing Initiative: The federal Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI) supports projects that increase access to healthy, affordable food in communities that currently lack these options.
Income Density: All the income for all the households within an area divided by the land area in square miles .
Institutional Racism: Discriminatory treatment, unfair policies and practices, and inequitable opportunities and influence within organizations and institutions, based on race.
Life Expectancy: The average number of years a population of a certain age is expected to live, given a set of age-specific death rates in a given year.
Large Grocery Store: Generally a smaller chain or non-chain store that offers fewer options when compared to a Supermarket. Large Grocery Stores typically offer at least six (6) varieties of fresh fruits/vegetables and offers low-fat milk as an option. Additionally, they offer raw meat (cut in store) and bakery (baked in store), and have five (5) or fewer cash registers. Examples include Marc’s and Aldi.
Low Income Area: Defined by the State of Ohio eligibility standard for Food Pantry use, and includes households earning less than 200% of the Federal poverty guideline. NOTE: For the purposes of this study, any area where more than 30% of the households earn less than 200% of the poverty guideline will be considered a Low Income Area. Further, those areas that are not Low Income Areas by this definition will not be considered part of a Food Desert; it can be assumed that higher income households can readily afford to travel to a store farther than one-half mile away.
Minority Population: Defined in this study as “Total Population” minus “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”. This measure correlates to racial and ethnic biases that affect standard of living and choice of neighborhoods.
Small Grocery Store: A smaller store without a variety of departments (deli, bakery, etc.) that offers at least one variety of milk and at least two (2) varieties of fresh fruits/vegetables.
Supermarket: Large store selling a variety of groceries including: raw meat, baked goods, at least eleven (11) varieties of both fresh fruits/vegetables, and three (3) varieties of milk (including low-fat). Also offers a variety of household goods and other services such as a pharmacy. Local examples include Giant Eagle, Heinen’s and Dave’s.
Statistical Planning Area (SPA): SPAs are geographic areas defined by the City of Cleveland Planning Commission in conjunction with community organizations and residents. The SPAs are a combination of contiguous census blocks within the City, and are defined by generally accepted neighborhood boundaries within each area. There are thirty-four (34) SPAs in the City of Cleveland. (http://neocando.case.edu/cando/index.jsp?tPage=geog)
Structural Racism: Racial bias across and within society. The cumulative and compounded effects of factors such as public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms that often reinforce and perpetuate racial inequity.
Transportation Access: Access to affordable and reliable transportation is essential to addressing poverty, unemployment, and other equal opportunity goals such as access to healthy food, good schools, and health care services. (http://www.civilrights.org/transportation/)
Urban or Suburban Sprawl: The expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into areas with less population density; car-dependent communities.

Contact Information

Roger Sikes, MPH
Program Manager
(216) 201-2000 ext. 1526
rsikes@ccbh.net
Ann Stahlheber, MS, RD, LD
Program Manager
(216) 201-2000 ext. 1544
astahlheber@ccbh.net

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